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Why are women living longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

422-3.jpgIt is known that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

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The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries than it is now.
We will now examine how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small, it has increased substantially over time.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you are able to determine if these two points are applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.