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Why are women living longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown as time passes? We only have partial evidence and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور the evidence is not sufficient to support an informed conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men today but not previously, is to be due to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001-110113010227Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in developed countries that it is today.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.