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Why are women living longer than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how is this difference growing over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for تحاميل مهبلية survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0633\u0627\u0643\u0633\u0646\u062f\u0627 \u062d\u0642\u0646 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062e\u0633\u064a\u0633|\u0627\u0633\u0631\u0639 \u0637\u0631\u0642 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062e\u064a\u0633\u064a\u0633|\u0633\u0627\u0643\u0633\u064a\u0646\u062f\u0627|\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0642\u0629 ...Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

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In wealthy countries, تحاميل مهبلية the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was tiny It has significantly increased over time.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.