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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors that all play a role in women's longevity more than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

3 months agoAnd second, افضل كريم للشعر there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.