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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

We know that women live longer than men, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

It is possible to verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.