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Why are women living longer than men?

Marcos Flannery (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have limited solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

Independently of the exact amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today and not in the past, تحاميل مهبلية is to have to do with the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two points stand تحاميل مهبلية ( out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you are able to determine if these two points also apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.