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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present, and why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which all play a part in women living longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men and not previously, is to have to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in developed countries that it is today.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however it increased dramatically over the last century.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.