Комментарии читателей

Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence is limited and we're left with only some solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how much the influence of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.\u0627\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u062e\u0633\u064a\u0633 - YouTube