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Why do women live longer than men?

Marcos Flannery (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

2476.jpgThe chart above shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in the richer countries than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small, it has increased substantially in the past.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.