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Why are women living longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men, and why is this difference growing over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only limited answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological or كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001-110113010227First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially over the last century.

It is possible to verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.