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Why are women living longer than men?

Tawanna Cates (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we do not know how much each factor اضيق وضعية للجماع contributes.

We know that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was extremely small It has significantly increased over time.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.1 year ago