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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Marcos Flannery (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور we only have partial solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure what the contribution of each of these factors is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, has to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries as compared to the present.
We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.