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Why do women live longer than men?

Lona Talbott (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present, and why is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we only have incomplete answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, we do not know the extent to which each factor كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام ( plays a role.

We are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

1 year ago__S.17__
In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام men living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.

It is possible to verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.