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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Aurora Salter (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today, but not previously, has to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, افضل شامبو وبلسم there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two aspects stand افضل شامبو وبلسم out.

First, there's an upward trend. and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country from the chart, confirm that the two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.