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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence is limited and we're only able to provide some answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which play a significant role in women who live longer than men, اضيق وضعية للجماع we do not know how much each one contributes.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the men and اضيق وضعية للجماع women's life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small but it increased substantially over the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you can determine if these two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.