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Why women live longer than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men, and why has this advantage increased in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have partial solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men today however not as in the past, is to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and تحاميل مهبلية relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows male and تحاميل مهبلية female life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially during the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you can determine if these two points apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.