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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And اوضاع الجماع how the advantage has grown in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men, اوضاع الجماع but not previously, has to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small but it increased substantially during the last century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.