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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? And علامات الحمل بولد why the advantage has grown in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we only have partial answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men however not as previously, has to relate to the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.