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Why are women living longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown as time passes? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially over the last century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.