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Why women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have partial answers. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men do today but not in the past, has to be due to the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries than it is today.
Let's examine the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two distinct features stand اوضاع الجماع out.

There is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.