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Why are women living longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only incomplete answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور we do not know how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as previously, is to relate to the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This graph shows that even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small but it increased substantially during the last century.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.