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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men, but not previously, is to be due to the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly with time.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.