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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, and why is this difference growing over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason women live longer than men do today but not previously, افضل كريم للشعر is to do with the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

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In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny but it has risen significantly over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.