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Why women live longer than men?

Cassandra Benoit (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and we have only partial solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, افضل شامبو وبلسم like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could be expected to live for افضل شامبو وبلسم longer than her brothers.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was tiny however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.