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Why women live longer than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men, and why is this difference growing over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know what the contribution to each of these variables is.

IMG_5730.jpgWe are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest, but it grew substantially in the past century.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points are also applicable to the other countries with available data: كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام Sweden, France and the UK.