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Why do women live longer than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-20)

50321225603_e8c9a864d8.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and why has this advantage increased over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is today.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The next chart plots the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.