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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we have only some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

\u0635\u0628\u063a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0648\u062f (\u0628\u0645\u0643\u0648\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0645\u0648\u062c\u0648\u062f\u0629 \u0641\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0646\u0632\u0644 \u0628\u0645\u0646\u062a\u0647\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0633\u0647\u0648\u0644\u0629 ...In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today however not as previously, is to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, العاب زوجية ( so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, العاب زوجية country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially in the past century.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, confirm that the two points are also applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.