Комментарии читателей

Why do women live longer than men?

Danny Arias (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and why has this advantage increased over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only incomplete solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which play a significant role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for تحاميل مهبلية survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for تحاميل مهبلية longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.51078687497_8295314b7e.jpg