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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-20)

لانجرى نكهات فراشةEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and تحاميل مهبلية the evidence is not sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men today but not previously, is to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased with time.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.