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Why do women live longer than men?

Lona Fawcett (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why is this difference growing over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have limited solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and ابر التخسيس relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is now.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and ابر التخسيس 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be very small but it has risen significantly over time.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you are able to check that these two points apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.