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Why do women live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only incomplete answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

\u0627\u0628\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u062a\u0646\u062d\u064a\u0641 Saxenda \u0633\u0639\u0631\u0647\u0627 - \u0643\u0648\u0646\u062a\u0646\u062aWe know that women live longer than males, العاب زوجية regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For العاب زوجية example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was very small, it has increased substantially with time.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you can check that these two points also apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.