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Why do women live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? There isn't much evidence and we have only some answers. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

1757767.jpgIndependently of the exact weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men but not previously, is to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, افضل شامبو وبلسم ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage in all countries, افضل شامبو وبلسم the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.