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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sabine Biaggini (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and how has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that all play a role in the longevity of women over males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men, but not previously, is to relate to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The advantage women had in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points also apply to other countries that have available information: كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور Sweden, France and the UK.51222574938_3c81672eae.jpg