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Why are women living longer than men?

Sabine Biaggini (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present and how does this benefit increase over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

Independently of the exact weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today and not previously, has to relate to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, اضيق وضعية للجماع especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.نكهات الحلمات كيس مى