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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide incomplete answers. We know there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For زيوت تطويل الشعر example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, زيوت تطويل الشعر the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is now.
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small It has significantly increased over time.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.