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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men in the present but not previously, has to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, افضل شامبو وبلسم so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries that it is today.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: افضل شامبو وبلسم female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

نكهات الحلمات كيس مىYou can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.