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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present, and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know what the contribution to each of these variables is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart illustrates that, افضل شامبو وبلسم although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, determine if these two points apply to the other countries having available data: افضل شامبو وبلسم Sweden, France and the UK.