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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)

1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only partial solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be tiny however, it has grown significantly with time.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you can verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.