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Why are women living longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why does this benefit increase over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor اضيق وضعية للجماع plays a role.

We are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, اضيق وضعية للجماع there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

وجع.PNGThere is an upward trend. Men and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically over the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you are able to check that these two points also apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.