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Why do women live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? Why the advantage has grown as time passes? There isn't much evidence and we only have some solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women's longevity more than males, اضيق وضعية للجماع it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, اضيق وضعية للجماع ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was extremely small It has significantly increased over time.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.