Комментарии читателей

Why women live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence is limited and we have only limited answers. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the weight, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today but not previously, has to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, افضل شامبو وبلسم like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

LuEYmHlFspSmYlJSTzWmcEkPGMkhHAYRKS3tzWomEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries as compared to the present.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically over the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.