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Why do women live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men in the present but not previously, has to have to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for ابر التخسيس women used to be smaller
Let's now look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

aloe-shampoo.jpgBy selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.