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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and how has this advantage increased over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental variables that play an integral role in the longevity of women over males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

\u0627\u0628\u0631 \u062a\u062e\u0633\u064a\u0633 \u0627\u0644\u0648\u0632\u0646 send have pace - delacroixgroup.comWe know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, افضل شامبو وبلسم;, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - it means that in all nations baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was very small, it has increased substantially over time.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you are able to determine if these two points apply to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.