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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Lora Helm (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men and how has this advantage increased over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only partial answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

\u062d\u0643\u0645 \u0635\u0628\u063a \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0628\u0627\u0644\u0627\u0633\u0648\u062f - \u0648\u064a\u0643\u064a\u0627\u062aIn spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men today but not in the past, is to relate to the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for افضل شامبو وبلسم women exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was tiny however, it has grown significantly with time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.