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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-20)


50464560843_3089e442f7.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? And why has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide partial answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, علامات الحمل بولد we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men today, but not in the past, has to do with the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

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The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny It has significantly increased over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.