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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sabine Biaggini (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام,, relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0646\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062c\u0645\u0627\u0639 \u5b89\u5353APK\u4e0b\u8f7d\uff0c\u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 ...Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly over time.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, verify that these two points also apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.