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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and why does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and افضل كريم للشعر - - the evidence isn't sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

Independently of the exact weight, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men today and not previously, has to be due to the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Men and افضل كريم للشعر women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

6 months agoIf you select the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to determine if these two points also apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.