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Why do women live longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-20)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today, and why is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; However, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام we're not sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

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The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries that it is today.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.