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Why are women living longer than men?

Sabine Biaggini (2022-04-20)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and افضل كريم للشعر how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide partial answers. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

\u0632\u064a\u0648\u062a \u0637\u0628\u064a\u0639\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u062a\u0644\u0645\u064a\u0639 \u0648 \u062a\u0637\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u0646\u062a\u064a\u062c\u0629 \u0633\u062a\u0643\u0648\u0646 \u0645\u0628\u0647\u0631\u0629 ...The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once extremely small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.