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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present and why has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each factor is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can expect to live longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

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In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: زيوت تطويل الشعر While the advantage of women in life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.